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# Book Value Per Share BVPS: Definition, Calculation & Importance

July 19, 2024
Bill Kimball

For instance, consider a company’s brand value, which is built through a series of marketing campaigns. U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) require marketing costs to be expensed immediately, reducing the book value per share. However, if advertising efforts enhance the image of a company’s products, the company can charge premium prices and create brand value. Market demand may increase the stock price, which results in a large divergence between the market and book values per share. In the example from a moment ago, a company has \$1,000,000 in equity and 1,000,000 shares outstanding.

## Everything You Need To Master Financial Modeling

The total assets and total liabilities are on the company’s balance sheet in annual and quarterly reports. Value investors actively seek out companies with their market values below their book valuations. They see it as a sign of undervaluation and hope market perceptions turn out to be incorrect. In this scenario, the market is giving investors an opportunity to buy a company for less than its stated net worth.

## The Difference Between Book Value per Share and Net Asset Value (NAV)

This situation suggests a potential buying opportunity, as the market may be undervaluing the company’s actual worth. A price to book value of less than 1 is considered a good value as it shows a stock may be undervalued. However, a low P/B could also point to a company with serious underlying problems.

## What Does Book Value Per Share (BVPS) Tell Investors?

Earnings per share would be the net income that common shareholders would receive per share (company’s net profits divided by outstanding common shares). The book value of a company is based on the amount of money that shareholders would get if liabilities were paid off and assets were liquidated. The market value of a company is based on the current stock market price and how many shares are outstanding. To calculate book value per share, simply divide a company’s total common equity by the number of shares outstanding. For example, if a company has total common equity of \$1,000,000 and 1,000,000 shares outstanding, then its book value per share would be \$1. That said, by comparing the stock’s current market price to its book value per share, investors can get an idea of the stock’s value and the company’s potential growth prospects.

## Book Value: Definition, Meaning, Formula, and Examples

All other things being equal, a higher book value is better, but it is essential to consider several other factors. People who have already invested in a successful company can realistically expect its book valuation to increase during most years. However, larger companies within a particular industry will generally have higher book values, just as they have higher market values. If XYZ can generate higher profits and use those profits to buy more assets or reduce liabilities, the firm’s common equity increases. If, for example, the company generates \$500,000 in earnings and uses \$200,000 of the profits to buy assets, common equity increases along with BVPS.

1. Earnings per share would be the net income that common shareholders would receive per share (company’s net profits divided by outstanding common shares).
2. Book value per share is just one of the methods for comparison in valuing of a company.
3. Creditors who provide the necessary capital to the business are more interested in the company’s asset value.
4. Intangible assets, including brand names and intellectual property, can be part of total assets if they appear on financial statements.
5. When used together, market value and book value can help investors determine whether a stock is fairly valued, overvalued, or undervalued.

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High-interest rates can lead to a rise in debt financing costs, which leads to higher liabilities. In addition, changes in the management hierarchy can influence the BVPS if they impact the company’s direction or efficiency. Capital expenditures, depreciation, and economic downturns can impact asset values and, thus, the company’s book value per share.

We’ll assume the trading price in Year 0 was \$20.00, and in Year 2, the market share price increases to \$26.00, which is a 30.0% year-over-year increase. For companies seeking to increase their book value of equity per share (BVPS), profitable reinvestments can lead to more cash. In return, the accumulation of earnings could be used to reduce liabilities, which leads to higher book value of equity (and BVPS). The formula for BVPS involves taking the book value of equity and dividing that figure by the weighted average of shares outstanding. The book value of equity (BVE) is the value of a company’s assets, as if all its assets were hypothetically liquidated to pay off its liabilities. For example, the value of a brand, created by marketing expenditures over time, might be the company’s main asset and yet does not show up in the calculation of the BVPS.

Stocks often become overbought or oversold on a short-term basis, according to technical analysis. The difference is due to several factors, including the company’s operating model, its sector of the market, and the company’s specific attributes. BVPS is typically calculated and published periodically, such as quarterly or annually. This infrequency means that BVPS may not always reflect the most up-to-date value of a company’s assets and liabilities.

What this means is that if a company sold off its total assets and paid down its liabilities, then the equity value or net worth up for distribution to shareholders is \$180 Million. Shareholders equity, in this case, includes paid-up capital, retained earnings and revenue capital and any surplus generated from the revaluation of fixed assets. Deriving the book value of a company becomes easier when you know where to look.

Book value per share (BVPS) measures the book value of a firm on a per-share basis. BVPS is found by dividing equity available to common shareholders by the number of outstanding shares. The book value per share (BVPS) ratio compares the equity held by common stockholders to the total number of outstanding shares. To put it simply, this calculates a company’s per-share total assets less total liabilities. To get BVPS, you divide the figure for total common shareholders’ equity by the total number of outstanding common shares.

So, it reflects current prices and changes often as it considers sentiment around future growth in the market. The book value per share is calculated by subtracting the preferred stock from the stockholders’ total equity (book value) and dividing that by the average number of outstanding shares. Another way to increase BVPS is for a company to repurchase common stock from shareholders.

One of the major issues with book value is that companies report the figure quarterly or annually. It is only after the reporting that an investor would know how it has changed over the months. Note that if the company has a minority interest component, the correct value is lower. Minority interest is the ownership of less than 50 percent of a subsidiary’s equity by an investor or a company other than the parent company. However, for sectors like technology and pharmaceuticals, where intellectual property and ongoing research and development are crucial, BVPS can be misleading. Investors use BVPS to gauge whether a stock is trading below or above its intrinsic value.

The following image shows Coca-Cola’s “Equity Attributable to Shareowners” line at the bottom of its Shareowners’ Equity section. It’s one metric that an investor may look for if they’re interested in valuating Coca-Cola as a potential investment. The increased importance of intangibles and difficulty assigning values for them raises questions about book value. As technology advances, factors like intellectual property play larger parts in determining profitability. Ultimately, accountants must come up with a way of consistently valuing intangibles to keep book value up to date.

Conversely, book value per share is the equity available to shareholders divided by the number of outstanding shares. The measure represents the value of a company’s equity on a per share basis and provides a good baseline for valuing a company. Investors can calculate it easily if they have the balance sheet of a company of interest. Investors can compare BVPS to a stock’s market price to get an idea of whether that stock is overvalued or undervalued. Debt capital requires payment of interest, as well as eventual repayment of loans and bonds.

The market value represents the value of a company according to the stock market. It is a dollar amount computed based on the current market price of the company’s shares. Consider technology giant Microsoft Corp.’s (MSFT) balance sheet for the fiscal year ending June 2023. It reported total assets of around \$411.97 billion and total liabilities of about \$205.75 billion.

To obtain the figure for total common shareholders’ equity, take the figure for total shareholders’ equity and subtract any preferred stock value. If there is no preferred stock, then simply use the figure for total shareholder equity. The market value per share is a company’s current stock price, and it reflects a value that market participants are willing to pay for its common share. The book value per share is calculated using historical costs, but the market value per share is a forward-looking metric that takes into account a company’s earning power in the future.